Residential Recycling Service

Construction Recycling / Jobsite Services

Bellingham Drop Box Facility & Recycling Center

Birch Bay Drop Box Facility & Recycling Center

Cedarville Drop Box Facility & Recycling Center

Bellingham Drop Box Facility & Recycling Center

Birch Bay Drop Box Facility & Recycling Center

Cedarville Drop Box Facility & Recycling Center

360.734.3490 24 Hr Answering Service 360.734.2051

Home curbside recycling collection is provided to all single-family residences and multi-family units (1-4 units) in our service area.

Why does SSC use the Stack 3 Recycling Bin Pre-Sorted System?

Service Area:Bellingham, Ferndale, Birch Bay, Blaine and the majority of unincorporated Whatcom County.

Note: Recycling can be placed out for pickup weekly in Bellingham and every-other-week (EOW) in all other locationsregardlessof your frequency of garbage collection

Overfull recycling bins?Moderate quantities of extra materials can be placed next to recycling bins in an open cardboard box or plastic container (basket, bucket, etc.) no larger than a curbside recycling bin. Additional recycling bins are available for purchase. Orderhere.

You may also use (or purchase) your own 30-32 gallon size plastic garbage can. No metal garbage cans! Label can and lid for recyclingAluminum and Plastic Containers ONLY. Drill several holes in the bottom of the plastic can for drainage. Cans with water in them may not be able to be emptied for safety reasons. If your can is not collected for safety reasons, please drain any liquid and place out for collection on your next regularly scheduled pick-up day.

Use your recycling bin to recycle glass bottles and metal cans.

Large quantities? Home business-generated materials?Pleasecontact usfor options.

Lost or Stolen Bin(s)? Need an extra bin?Stack 3 Recycling Bins replacement sets are $30 delivered. Individual bins are $10 per bin delivered or picked up in person. Extra or replacement bin(s) Pay by cash (US dollar), check, credit card or bill it to your SSC account. Orderhere. For questions, pleasecontact us.

Note:SSC supplied containers are the property of SSC. Please label them with your address. DO NOT take them with you if you move. Customers are responsible for any theft, loss or damage in excess of normal use of SSC containers. A replacement fee will be charged for lost or stolen SSC containers. SSC is not responsible for items left in, on, or near garbage Toters®or garbage cans.

Live or work in outlying areas?SSC supports the efforts ofWestern Wildlife Outreach. Check out thesegarbage and recycling storage tips.

Collection:Please set out containers the evening before your collection day. SSC crews works all holidays that fall on weekdays. Please set out collection containers as usual.Click herefor holiday collection schedule tips. Please place each bin on the ground on windy days. Do not stack. For more windy weather tips,click here.

Forgot to set containers out?If you missed your regularly scheduled pickup, pleasecontact usor (360) 734-3490 for collection options.

Weather-related Service Delays:Collections may be missed due to weather or road conditions.Click herefor weather-related service info. If missed garbage and recyclables are collected on your next regularly scheduled pick-up, no credit will be given. For schedule changes or service interruptions,click hereorcontact usduring office hours or (360) 734-3490 for instructions. Our offices are open Monday-Friday 8AM-5PM. Closed most major holidays.

Collection Schedules:To request a collection calendar, clickherecontact usor call (360) 734-3490.

Pack Out Service (Option):Available for an additional ntact usfor rates, questions or to schedule service.

New Customer?To start service, clickherecontact usor call (360) 734-3490.

Start / Stop Service:To start or stop service(s) on an existing account,loginto your online account orcontact usor call us at (360) 734-3490.

Our temporary stop service option is available to customers gone one month or more. To arrange this service, contact us or (360) 734-3490.

During the temporary service stoppage, all SSC recycling and garbage containers are removed (at no charge). Once service resumes, containers are re-delivered free of charge.

Rates:For rates, pleasecontact usor (360) 734-3490.Why are rates not listed online?

Planning an event?Visit ourevent servicespage for more info on temporary service at your event.

Multi-Family Property Manager Note:The flat recycling rate in the base collection rate = unlimited recycling. The more your tenants recycle, the lower your bill. How? Downsize your garbage container, request additional recycling Toters at no additional charge and pay LESS for MORE service! To request extra recycling containers, pleasecontact us.

All sizes are approximate. For enclosure guidelines and info clickhere. For additional questions pleasecontact us.

Gate Service (Option) Available for a small charge. If locked, customer must unlock or supply a standard SSC dumpster lock. Purchase lock fromAccurate Lock & Security, Inc. orSecurity Solutions(formerly Bellingham Lock & Safe).

Pack Out Service (Option) Available for customers whose containers must be moved more than 5 feet to reach collection truck. SSC driver takes container to truck, empties it and returns it to designated storage location. Small charge per pick-up on containers 4-yd and smaller (note: there are no wheels on 6-yd and up). Due to weight, most restaurants cannot have Pack Out Service over 2-yd. Contact us for rates or more info.

Wheels (Option)Available on containers up to 4-yd in size.

Lock Bars (Option)Available upon request for any size container.

Length: *Left to right as you face the containerDepth: **Front to back as you face the container

All sizes are approximate. For enclosure guidelines and info clickhere. For additional questions pleasecontact us.

Gate Service (Option)Available for a small charge. If locked, customer must unlock or supply a standard SSC dumpster lock. Purchase lock fromAccurate Lock & Security, Inc. orSecurity Solutions(formerly Bellingham Lock & Safe).

Width: *Left to right as you face the container

Length: **Front to back as you face the container

Recycle the following materials by placing them in the marked stacking bins. Max. 35 lbs. per bin.

Overfull recycling bins?Moderate quantities of extra materials can be placed next to recycling bins in an open cardboard box or plastic container (basket, bucket, etc.) no larger than your SSC curbside recycling bins. Additional recycling bins are available for purchase. Orderhere.

For extra aluminum and plastic containers ONLY, you may also purchase a 30-32 gallon lightweight, plastic can (see examples to right) and label itAluminum and Plastic Containers.

For extra large quantities or home business-generated materials, pleasecontact usor call our office (360) 734-3490

Windy out? Clickherefor tips on preventing wind-blown litter. Thank you for helping us keep your neighborhood clean!

Drivers cannot take recyclables in plastic bags for safety reason – use a small plastic tub or cardboard box no larger than a standard curbside bin for extras.

Reminder: Stack corrugated cardboardnextto bins or Toters®for recycling.

Envelopes, stationery, labels, paper sacks, phone books, paperback books, manuals, textbooks and guides. Note: remove and discard covers and bindings of hardback books.

Computer, copy/office paper (all colors), carbonless paper, file folders, poster paper

Paperboard cartons (ex. Cereal boxes, mac n cheese boxes, shoe boxes, gift boxes, egg cartons).

Discard liners/packing material. Flatten.

Staples, paper clips, file folder clips OK

Polycoated cartons or boxes (refrigerator/freezer) ex. milk, juice or frozen food containers.

Aseptic cartons and boxes (non-refrigerated, shelf-stable) ex. soy milk, broth, etc. or paper with foil or plastic (ex. foil gift wrap, (TYVEK) postal envelopes)

No paper sacks except those holding paper inside a curbside bin or box/tub no larger than an SSC recycling bin. Large, heavy duty paper sacks sold for yard waste OK. 50 lb limit.

**These products are compostable and accepted in our FoodPlus! Recycling service.Click herefor details. To sign up for FoodPlus!click here.

Drivers cannot take recyclables in plastic bags for safety reason – use a small plastic tub or cardboard box no larger than a standard curbside bin for extras.

Yes: Clean newsprint, inserts, ads, masking paper and masking tape. Roll or fold masking paper up tight. NO plastic or strapping tape.

No: Plastic bags, including plastic delivery bags, or rubber bands

If windy, please put top layer of newspaper in a paper bag to prevent litter.

Drivers cannot take recyclables in plastic bags for safety reason – use a small plastic tub or cardboard box no larger than a standard curbside bin for extras.

Overfull recycling bins?Moderate quantities of extra materials can be placed next to recycling bins in an open cardboard box or plastic container (basket, bucket, etc.) no larger than your SSC curbside recycling bins. Additional recycling bins are available for purchase. Orderhere.

For extra aluminum and plastic containers ONLY, you may also purchase a 30-32 gallon lightweight, plastic can (see examples to right) and label itAluminum and Plastic Containers.Drill several holes in the bottom of the plastic can for drainage. Cans with water in them may not be able to be emptied for safety reasons. If your can is not collected for safety reasons, please drain any liquid and place out for collection on your next regularly scheduled pick-up day.

Use your recycling bin to recycle glass bottles and metal cans.

. All colors. Labels & caps/lids OK. Throw away plastic corks; compost real corks. Remove caps/lids. Rinse bottles and jars clean. Bottles must be removed from 6-pak and 1/2 case boxes, etc. and placed loose in bin or Toter

. Avoid breaking glass. Chipped or cracked OK. For broken/shattered glass, bag or place inside an empty carton (milk/juice) or box and discard in garbage.

. Remove tin can labels and recycle with scrap paper. Rinse all cans and foil clean. FLATTEN.

License Plates- Remove or invalidate the month and year tabs then bend the plates so they cant be used on another vehicle.

Recycle old license plates,except those listed below, with bottles, cans and plastic containers or at one of ourRecycling Centers.

We cannot accept the following types of plates. Please return to a vehicle licensing office. For more infoclick here.

Commercial vehicle plates (gross weight over 12,000 pounds)

Amateur radio operator (HAM) plates

Aerosol Cans (recycle with scrap metal – see below).

Non-hazardous, aerosol cans ONLY. Aerosol cans must be EMPTY – no pressure or contents left in can. Leave cap on (if you have it). Place in a cardboard box with any other scrap metal. Set next to recycling bins or recycling Toters

for collection. Hazardous product aerosol cans or cans that are not empty must be taken to Disposal of Toxics for safe disposal. For more info call (360) 380-4640 or visit

(max. bucket size – 3 gal. with metal handles removed)All colors and numbers. Labels OK. Put caps/lids back on all plastic bottles before recycling. Rinse CLEAN and recycle loose or nested together.FLATTENbottles – especially bottles half-gallon size or larger.

Recycle plastic containers used for these types of products:

Beverages, dairy products, deli foods, sauces/condiments, cooking oils, soaps, detergents, cleaners (kitchen, laundry & garage), snack foods, frozen foods, storage/freezer-type containers, hair/body care, health/medicine, single-serve cold beverage cups/lids, hot beverage lids, caps and rings.

PLEASE FLATTEN BOTTLES – ESPECIALLY HALF-GALLON SIZE OR LARGER

Flattening bottles saves room in your recycling bin and on our recycling truck – allowing us to collect more recyclables and make fewer trips to the recycling center. This conserves fuel, saves time and money and reduces our impact on the environment. Thank you for your cooperation.

Styrofoam, (peanuts, packaging blocks, sheets, food containers, etc.), foam rubber

Window/plate glass, drinking glasses/mugs, pitchers, windshields, light bulbs, mirrors, fluorescent tubes, ceramics, pottery, Pyrex

and other baking dishware or insulation

Plastic pumps, tableware, utensils, toys

Plastic containers that held potentially hazardous products such as motor oil, antifreeze, paints, pesticides, etc.

Styrofoam:Clickhereor inquire with local postal, mailing and shipping outlets for reuse options.

To recycle larger quantities or other materials please contact .

NOTE: Buckets larger than 3-gal, as well as plant pots, trays, and other miscellaneous rigid plastics stamped with a resin number 1-7 inside a chasing arrows logo can be recycled at our downtownDrop Box Facility & Recycling Station, 1001 Roeder Avenue, M-F, 8am-5pm. Fee charged: $5/30-gallon bag of mixed plastics.

Generate larger amounts of plastics? Call orcontact usto arrange for commercial pick-up.

Why do materials need to be clean for recycling?

Additional Plastics (pots, trays, bags, tarps and more) accepted for DROP-OFF RECYCLING ONLY atBellingham Drop Box Facility & Recycling Center.Click herefor more info.

Vehicle Batteries (Lead Acid)- Car, truck, motorcycle and boat batteries. Store in a box. No cracked, leaking, household or rechargeable batteries accepted. Leave battery caps on. Note: Battery should say Pb on it, which designates it as Lead Acid.

Sealed Lead Acid (SLA) Batteries- Used in security, emergency, backup, mobile medical devices, etc. Store in a box. No cracked, leaking, household or rechargeable batteries accepted. Note: Battery should say Pb on it, which designates it as Lead Acid.

Note:Rechargeable Batteries- Ni-Cad, NiMh, Lithium and those used for cell phones, cameras, hearing aids, rechargeable tools, etc. Please contactDisposal of Toxicsfor recycling or disposal options.

Household Batteries- Alkaline and carbon-zinc batteries no longer contain hazardous materials and can be disposed of with your regular household garbage.

Scrap Metal- Steel, copper, aluminum, brass and aerosol cans. Maximum 35 lbs. per pick up. Maximum length 24 inches. Store in a box. No plastic pipe.

Cords, Wiring, and Holiday Lights- Please coil/bundle and tie with string, rubber band or twist tie and place next to recycling bins for pick-up.

Aerosol Cans- Non-hazardous, aerosol cans ONLY. Aerosol cans must be EMPTY – no pressure or contents left in can. Leave cap on (if you have it). Place in a cardboard box with any other scrap metal. Set next to recycling bins or recycling Toters®for collection. Hazardous product aerosol cans or cans that are not empty must be taken to Disposal of Toxics for safe disposal. For more info call (360) 380-4640 or visit

Used Motor Oil- Used motor oil ONLY. Do not mix with anything else. Store in a one gallon (or smaller), sealed, non-breakable container. Clean plastic milk or water jugs work great. Do not use bleach, detergent, or antifreeze containers. Screw on threaded lids tightly. Seal pop top style lids with duct tape. Mark container Oil. Set next to recycling bins (residential) or recycling Toters®(multi-family) for collection. Commercial customers shouldcontact usfor options. For questions, or to recycle larger quantities, contact us at (360) 734-3490 .

Oil & Water Dont Mix – Separating Oil from Water

Let the oil / water mix stand. The oil will float to the top.

Pour off oil into an approved container (see above). Seal and label as instructed above.

Soak up any contaminated water and dispose of in the garbage

Used motor oil is also accepted for recycling at our Cedarville and Birch Bay Drop Box Facility & Recycling Centers. For hours and directions,click here.

Corrugated cardboard and brown paper bags.Remove packing materials. Flatten and bundle. One bundle per pickup. Max. size 24x48x6. No Styrofoam, plastic packing or wax-coated boxes.

Special pick-ups available for larger boxes or larger volumes (ie. after moving). Please contact us or (360) 734-3490.

Food scraps, yard debris, compostable papers and bio-plastics are all composted into rich soil amendment through our award-winning FoodPlus! program. FoodPlus! is a cost-effective way to reduce waste, trim your garbage bill and support local businesses creating new products from recycled materials. All FoodPlus! materials are composted atGreen Earth Technologies (GET)in Lynden. Compost from GET is available for sale in Whatcom County.

Service Area:Bellingham, Ferndale, Birch Bay, Blaine and parts of unincorporated Whatcom County. Currently, there is no FoodPlus! service on Lummi Island.

Order FoodPlus! servicehere. Note: FoodPlus! is also available tocommercial customers.

*Or use your own container(s), paper bags or boxes for extra material. NO PLASTIC BAGS PLEASE. Set extra materials next to FoodPlus! Toter®for pick-up. Charges for extra materials apply.

Start / Stop Service:To start or stop service(s) on an existing account,loginto your online account orcontact usat or (360) 734-3490.

Bulky Items:Bulky material that will not fit in Toters®should be cut to 4 lengths, tied in bundles (max. weight 50 lbs.) and set next to Toter. Charges for bulky material apply. Pleasecontact usfor questions.

Woody Debris:For larger amounts of yard waste and/or woody debris like branches, brush more than 4 long (max. 7 diameter and 20 long), check out ourdumpsteranddrop boxrental options (1-40 yard) orcontact usfor service options.

Collection:Please set out containers the evening before your collection day. SSC crews works all holidays that fall on weekdays. Please set out collection containers as usual. Holiday collection schedule tips arehere. Weather-related service tips arehere. For schedule changes or service interruptions visit ournews pageor contact us during office hours mor (360) 734-3490 for instructions.

SSC supports the efforts of theGrizzly Bear Outreach Project. If you live or work in outlying areas, check out thesegarbage and recycling storage tips.

Note:SSC supplied containers are the property of SSC. Please label them with your address. DO NOT take them with you if you move. Customers are responsible for any theft, loss or damage in excess of normal use of SSC containers. A replacement fee will be charged for lost or stolen SSC containers. SSC is not responsible for items left in, on, or near Toters®or garbage cans.

Pack Out Service:Ideal for weekend residents, those in neighborhoods where covenants prohibit leaving garbage and recycling containers out overnight or for customers who need assistance. SSC driver takes container to truck, empties it and returns it to its designated storage location at your home. Available to all customers for a small charge per pick-up.

Toter Cleaning:$10.50/Toter (subject to change without notice). Call oremail usfor current pricing and to schedule a Toter swap. Note: Five (5) days notice required for scheduling.

Rates:For rates, pleasecontact usor (360) 734-3490.

For tips and more info visit ourFAQ page.

Fruit/Vegetable Scraps, Peels, Trimmings, Pits

Dairy Scraps (such as yogurt, cheese, sour cream, ice cream, milk)

Paper Coffee Filters, Coffee Grounds, Tea Bags

Dough Scraps (wrap or bag in PAPER)

All Meat, Fish, Shellfish Scraps (including bones and shells). No roadkill.

Compostable Dishes/Utensils/To-Go Containers (Ex. Corn, Potato, Bamboo) Note: MUST say compostable. Biodegradable NOT accepted.

Expired Floral Arrangements (Plant Material ONLY)

Seasonal Greens (Pumpkins, Cornstalks, Hay, Gourds, Garlands, Wreaths, Swags, Etc.)

Plastic(s)/Plastic Bags, Aseptic Cartons/Boxes (non-refrigerated, shelf-stable), Pet/Human Waste, Manure, Diapers, Roadkill, or Garbage

All materials collected in the FoodPlus! Recycling program are composted atGreen Earth Technologies (GET)in Lynden. Composting is a natural process that break down organic materials and turns them into rich soil amendment. Compost from GET is available for sale in Whatcom County.

Sanitary Service Company, Inc. (SSC) provides you with garbage and recycling collection service. You pay us to collect these materials. On your bill, you will see:

Actual cost of collecting your garbage

Actual cost of collecting your recyclables

The value (less any processing charges) of recyclables sold (shown as a commodity credit or commodity charge)

Recyclables are sold and the value we receive (if any) from the sale of these materials is applied to your collection bill in the form of a commodity credit or commodity charge. The commodity credit or commodity charge that appears on your bill reflects market conditions of the previous year. Market prices for recyclables go up and down just like prices for other commodities, such as lumber and gasoline. Following a year of high (or positive) market values, your commodity credit will increase. Following a year of low (or negative) market values, your commodity credit will decrease and may become a charge. The sale of these recyclables helps lower your overall bill. In years when we pay to have your recyclables processed, please remember it is still less expensive than disposing of these materials as garbage. We encourage you to continue recycling!

The commodity credit or commodity charge is reviewed and adjusted annually by the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission (WUTC). The WUTC reviews and approves our rates (except for residents in the cities of Bellingham and Ferndale) to ensure you are paying a fair price for the service you receive and fair value for your recyclables.

You can help keep your bill low by recycling as much as possible and buying products made from recycled materials. Increasing demand for products made from recycled materials helps strengthen recycling markets. By recycling, you also reduce the amount of garbage you generate and help conserve valuable resources.

Rigid (hard) and Film (soft) Plastics are accepted for Drop Off Recycling at our Bellingham Recycling Center & Transfer Station. Available to home and business customers. Small fee charged.Click herefor more info.

DROP-OFF RECYCLING ONLY- Bellingham Recycle Center & Transfer Station – 1001 Roeder Avenue (Corner F&Roeder). For hours and directions, clickhere.

Rate:Small recycling fee charged for 30-gal or equivalent.Click herefor more info on other materials accepted for drop-off orcontact uswith questions.

For other recycling and reuse options, clickhere.

Commercial Customers:Once a month curbside recycling collection is available. Variety ofdumpstersizes ntact usfor rates and additional info.

Contractors:SeeConstruction Recyclingfor info about recycling plastics and other construction related materials together.

All types and colors accepted. Material must be clean. Stuff into plastic sack to condense and save money. No Styrofoam or thin foam sheets.

All colors, numbers, and sizes accepted. Material must be clean. Labels OK. Remove lids and recycle loose or stuff inside containers. Stack and nest if possible to consolidate.

Local grocery stores often offer plastic bag recycling bins. Bags must be clean and dry. Free.

Got junk? You Call We Haul. From your home, garage, shop, yard or office, we can haul it all. Appliances, furniture, mattresses, electronics, remodeling/demolition waste, yard waste including branches, shrubs (max. 7 diameter and 20 long) and more. Low prices. No minimum charge! Weekend pick-up available.

Curbside Pick-up:For single bulky/large item pick-up, schedule curbside pick-up on your garbage collection day. Available to residential and commercial customers. Service must be scheduled in advance. Place item out next to garbage Toter®. Extra charges apply based on item size and quantity.

For questions or to schedule pick-up,contact usor call (360) 734-3490.

SSCdoes not acceptany kind of hazardous, toxic, radioactive or dangerous waste(s), ammunition, explosives, roadkill/dead animals, old gasoline, solvents, antifreeze, asbestos, pesticides, oil-based paints or hot ashes.

Note: Hot ashes are a fire hazard and should never be placed in a Toter® or can. Set in a metal can outside and away from buildings, structures or anything that can ignite. Let cool completely. Place COLD ashes in a bag and dispose of as garbage.

To dispose of ammunition or explosives (old boat flares, fireworks, etc.), contact the Washington State Patrol (Bellingham office) at or the Bellingham Police Department at for options.

Household hazardous wastes should not be thrown in the garbage. Click the links below for recycling/disposal options. Examples of some types of common household hazardous waste include:

Lighting (CFL, fluorescent tubes, etc.)

Asbestos (siding, shingles, floor adhesive, etc)

Pesticides/herbicides/other liquid chemicals

Disposal and/or recycling options for many other products can be foundhere.

To dispose of household hazardous wastes, please contact theDisposal of Toxicsprogram at (360) 380-4640. Disposal of Toxics accepts a variety of household hazardous wastes from Whatcom County residents.

Many electronic products – like computers, TVs and telephones – contain parts that can be harmful to the environment. These items dont belong in the garbage. Recycle old or non-working electronics instead.

All SSC customers (except Lummi Island). Contact us or (360) 734-3490 to schedule pick-up.

All SSC customers. Contact us mor (360) 734-3490 to schedule pick-up.

SSCs Bellingham Drop Box Facility & Recycling Center 1001 Roeder Ave (F&Roeder) Public drop-off during regular business hours only (Monday Friday 8AM 5PM). Closed most major holidays. Check in at front for assistance. Cash, check, debit and major credit card accepted or charge it to your SSC account.

All electronic items collected are delivered locally toSafe & Easy Recyclingand responsibly recycled or reused. For more information on electronics recycling in Washington State visitE Cycling Washington.

For questions or to schedule a pick-upcontact us.

Our mobile shredding service is available to both residential and commercial customers. Service is offered on a regular (weekly, every other week or monthly), occasional or as-needed schedule. From a small shoebox to a large storage unit – no amount is too big or too small.

For on-site, mobile shredding at your location contact us at (360) 734-3490 to schedule service.

Drop-off option: Secure shredding available at our Bellingham Drop Box Facility & Recycling Center at 1001 Roeder Ave (F&Roeder). Hourshere. Check in at office for instructions and to pay. Cash, check, credit card accepted or charge it to your SSC account.

Confidential data shredding is ideal for:

Our mobile, state-of-the-art shredding truck shreds on-site while you watch. We provide a convenient and affordable way to protect yourself, your employees and your company from identity theft and confidently recycle your confidential data.

Shredded paper is recycled through Northwest Recycling (NWR) – another locally-owned and family-operated business. Recycled paper is baled and shipped to mills regionally and overseas for manufacture into new paper products.

Confidential Data Shredding Info Flyer

Two-wheeled cart with secure (lockable) lid. For scheduled service, we provide as many Toters®as you need at no charge. You provide lock(s). For annual or seasonal service, Toters®arrangements are made on a case by case basis. Toters®meet Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations, are durable and easy to transport. Color: Granite

Use your own storage box and reuse it.

Computer Hard Drives (contact us (360) 734-3490 for rates)

Other materials (contact us (360) 734-3490 for options)

Staples, paper clips, fasteners and spiral notebooks OK. Please remove ringed binders from paper loads intended for recycling. All paper data is shredded and recycled. Other data is shredded and recycled as markets allow or destroy