Packaging Glossary

Core Services: Packaging beyond Distribution

Transporting Hazardous Materials: a UN/HAZMAT Markings Guide

UN Closing Instructions for Steel Pails

Light colored compound of vulcanized SBR synthetic rubber.

A SANCAP Liner Technology product. Saran, clay coated board. 20 PVDCP is a construction of clay coated board and Saran coating (PVDC). Color: White. Suggested product uses include after shave lotion, cold cream, cologne, cough syrup, hand soap, poison ivy lotion, hair shampoo, tincture of iodine, concentrated coffee, corn oil, fruit extract, syrup, vinegar, glass wax and radiator compound.

Applied color lettering. Colored lettering or design of a ceramic nature fused onto bottles. Employs screen printing to transfer glass frit (powdered glass colorant) to the surface of a bottle or glass container. The design is fired, heated in a lehr, and becomes permanently fused.

Acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene (ABS). Tough, hard, rigid, opaque plastic easily fabricated by injection molding, extrusion and thermoforming. More costly than general purpose and impact grades of polystyrene. Of limited use in packaging.

Laboratory performance test of a container or coating to evaluate its performance in a shorter time interval than that required under actual service conditions. Example: Performing chemical-resistance tests at elevated temperatures.

Thermoplastic materials, such as Lucite and Plexiglas, made by polymerization of monomeric esters of acrylic acids.

A material such as a hardener, softener, preservative, slip agent, etc., added to a base material in order to achieve a specific result.

Exudation, or ooze, especially from pressure-sensitive label material. It is the result of cold flow, excessive roll winding tension, excessive heat or improper converting procedures.

Describes any container which consists of (1) a gas-tight, pressure resistant container, (2) a valve (3) a desired product, and (4) a self-contained propellent which forces the product from the container when the valve is opened. Products dispensed from aerosol packages include true aerosols, wet sprays (coarse particles), foams, pastes, syrups and powders.

Extruded aluminum containers, plastic coated bottles, closures and overcaps. Aerosol bottles and containers are available in various sizes, shoulder configurations, diameters, and neck finishes. Decorating options are available.

Liquefied or compressed gases that are packed with a product in a pressure-propulsion container in order to provide sufficient pressure to propel the product through a valve to give the form of discharge desired.

A piece of corrugation with a height of 3/16 inch excluding the facing, generally spaced about 33 to 39 flutes per foot.

The physical and/or chemical change of a material with respect to time, under defined environmental conditions, leading to improvement or deterioration of properties.

A Unipac product. A range of one piece lining materials with a substrate choice of either unbleached virgin pulpwood or folding box board. Both conform to the stringent requirements of food approval bodies in a majority of countries. Can be used to line plastic and metal closures. The functionality of the AlphaSeal liner depends on the facing material applied to the pulpwood or box board substrate. Choices for facing material include polyester, PVDC, Saran, aluminum/foil/polyester, SA-66, univinyl, or aluminum foil. Depending on facing material selected, the AlphaSeal provides a general purpose sealing of bottles containing wet or dry products, solvents, weak acids and alkalines, and can provide a gas barrier.

A brown color of glass that absorbs nearly all radiation with wavelengths shorter than 450mm. Amber glass offers excellent protection from ultraviolet radiation. This is critical for products such as beer and certain drugs.

Also ampoule, ampule, ampoul. A relatively small container made from a glass or plastic tube, the end of which is drawn into a stem and closed by fusion after filling. The bottom may be flat, convex or drawn out as required. Opening is achieved by breaking the stem.

A controlled heating and cooling process designed to relieve internal stresses introduced in a glass container during and immediately after glass container formation.

The specific temperature in which internal stresses built up during glass container formation are substantially relieved in 15 minutes.

Glass and injection molded plastic items, such as open-tip syringes, nasal inoculation syringes and bolus dispensing guns, are available in USDA/FDA compliant and approved resins.

A chemical substance that can be added to plastic resin to minimize or prevent the effects of oxygen attack on the plastic (e.g., yellowing or degradation). Chemical attacks by oxygen may render a plastic brittle or cause it to lose desired mechanical properties.

A chemical substance applied to the surface of a plastic article or incorporated in the plastic from which the article is made. The anti-static agent renders the surface of the plastic article less susceptible to the accumulation of electrostatic charges which attract and hold fine dirt or dust on the surface of the plastic article.

Corrugated board with embossed or chemically-treated surface, to increase coefficient of friction, so containers made from the treated board will produce a more stable pallet or unit load.

A container closure designed so that it may be used to apply the contents of the container, such as oil and grease spouts or daubers.

Short glass or plastic rod 2 mm to 4 mm in diameter used in conjunction with an applicator cap. The end which enters the cap is cut square. The other end may have a variety of glazed finishes.

The maximum percentage or proportion of variant (or defective) units in a lot or batch that, for the purposes of acceptance sampling, can be considered satisfactory as a process average.

Items used to package aromatherapy products, including glass and aluminum bottles, vials, perfume samplers and candle holders.

A technique for creating a shelf-stable container by placing a commercially sterile product into a commercially sterile container. The process involves sterilizing a product and its intended container (usually separately) and then bringing them together within a sterile environment for filling and sealing. The sealed container is designed to maintain a sterile product until the seal is broken. In addition, when packaged aseptically, the product does not require refrigeration until the package seal is broken. Used for drink boxes, wine (bag-in-box), tomato products and soy milk.

A wide variety of assembly services such as collating, filling, gluing, labeling, bagging, shrink wrapping, bag sealing, blister sealing, display assembly, package assembly, inspection, and bulk mail preparation are available. Some companies follow strict anti-contamination procedures to ensure a clean pack.

Various styles of atomizers and purse sprayers are available, including metal, aluminum, molded glass, plastic, and pastel enamel.

Products produced from resins that can withstand 250 degrees for 45 minutes.

A pressure vessel into which steam or other vapor can be introduced at a suitably high temperature to sterilize packages or other objects placed therein. Similar pressure vessels used for sterilizing food products packed in glass jars or cans are normally called retorts.

A number obtained by adding the thickest wall section measurement of a container to the thinnest wall section and dividing by two. It does not describe the distribution of plastic material in a container.

System of weights used in Great Britain and U.S. for the measure of goods other than gems, precious metals and drugs. Designated by oz or oz av and lb or lb av. Sometimes, when a container is meant to hold a specific product such as honey or talcum powder, the bottle capacity is stated in auvoirdupois ounces rather than in fluid ounces. For example, a typical 1 lb. honey bottle holds 11 to 12 fluid ounces.

Loosening of cap; can be caused by improper cap application torque, improper mating of the cap to the container, or improper liner facing and/or backing.

The compressible paper material, usually pulp or newsboard, to which the liner is attached or adhered. This compressible paper material compensates for any irregularities on the sealing surface. Also provides additional strength, or water resistance, or better appearance.

A bottom defect. A seam occurring between the baffle and the blank mold.

Wire handle for carrying purposes, with or without grip, fastened to ears that are riveted or welded to opposite sides of a container.

Banding is used to unitize a product for shipment. Steel, plastic and cord banding is available along with seals and buckle and strapping tools.

An identification symbol where the value is encoded in a sequence of high contrast, rectangular bars and spaces. The relative widths of thes bars and spaces contain the information. Identification is by visual or electronic means.

Barex is a polymer composed primarily of acrylonitrile, with methylacrylate and butadiene as comonomers. It offers excellent gas barrier properties, good impact and chemical reistance. Barex containers are used for many agricultrial chemicals. Barex is a registered trademark of BP Chemical Inc.

Term used to prescribe one of two classes of specialized packaging materials that provide environmental protection to the package contents: (1) gas-, moisture-, or light-proof materials that control or eliminate the amount of these environmental constituents that pass into or out of a package; (2) a porous material possessing a structure that prevents the passage of microorganisms that might contaminate the contents of a package.

Baseline performance is the benchmark against which future measurements can be compared over time.

Steel, HDPE and P/P baskets for washing, storing and autoclaving laboratory ware.

P/P and P/E baskets to insert in wide mouth jars for cleaning jewelry.

A properly proportioned mix of raw materials melted to produce glass.

A narrow, round projection above or below the surface.

A finish defect. A finish which has a bent or crooked appearance. Also called crooked finish.

A neck defect. A neck where the finish is tilted to one side, preventing filling of the bottle.

A piece of corrugation with a height of 3/32 inch excluding the facing, generally spaced about 47 to 53 flutes per foot.

A product determined to be a commercial or industrial product other than food or feed that is composed, in whole or in significant part, of biological products or renewable domestic agricultural materials (including plant, animal, and marine materials) or forestry materials.

The relative number of actual or suspected microorganisms of whatever type found on a specific article at a specific time. May also apply to the level of microorganisms found in a specific area during a procedure such as air sampling.

The degradation of material from naturally occurring microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi or algae over a period of time.

An edge or side defect. A string of glass extending across the inside of the bottle.

A general defect. Small black specks in the glass.

A particular style of straight sided oblong bottle used primarily by pharmaceutical concerns. Also called space saver and wide mouth packer.

The mold parts used in all container machines for preliminary formation of glass or plastic in preparation for the most efficient completion of containers in the finish molds where bottles are blown. The blank forms the parison. The parison itself is at times referred to as the blank.

The metal mold in which the parison is formed.

An edge or side defect. A seam which is relatively large, extending from the shoulder to the bottom of the container. Also called mold seam.

Any type of pulp whitened by an oxidizing treatment, usually with a hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide solution, or by a reducing treatment such as with sulphur dioxide or sulphites.

A product is secured between a preformed (usually transparent plastic) dome or bubble and a paperboard surface or carrier. Attachment may be by stapling, heat-sealing, gluing, etc.

A form of packaging and displaying merchandise in which the merchandise is sealed into a transparent molded plastic blister shaped to accommodate the merchandise with a foil or cardboard backing.

A general defect. Relatively large bubbles in the glass.

A method of glass container manufacturing of narrow finish containers in which the parison is formed by compressed air.

A method of fabrication in which a warm glass or plastic parison (hollow tube) is placed between the two halves of a mold (cavity) and forced to assume the shape of that mold cavity by the use of air pressure.

Part of the tooling used to form hollow objects or containers by the blow molding process. It is a tubular tool through which air pressure is introduced into the parison to create the air pressure necessary to form the parison into the shape of the mold. On some blow molding systems, it is a part of, or an extension of, the core pin.

Containers manufactured from molten glass that are formed by air pressure, in molds, similar in fashion to plastic molding. The finished containers are ejected or extracted from the mold, then annealed (heated and cooled) to temper the glass.

A surface whitening or discoloration of a plastic bottle. It is the result of physically induced (i.e., by impact) or chemically induced phase separation of the (1) ingredients in the plastic mold compound or (2) the molecular orientation of the plastic.

A heavy weight thick sheet of paper or other fibre substance (from 0.012 to 0.030 inches and up). Variations: cardboard (non-specific term), chipboard, fibreboard, paperboard, containerboard, boxboard, tagboard.

A high silicate glass with at least 5% boron oxide.

A style of bottle characterized by a round cylindrical shape with a short curved shoulder. Typically used by the drug and chemical industries.

The part of the mold which contains the heel (base) radius and the push up of the container to be formed.

A finish defect. A finish which has cracks or actual pieces of glass broken out of it.

A general defect. Ware which is cracked or broken into pieces.

Brokers licensed to help facilitate the importing and exporting of goods.

A SANCAP Liner Technology product. An oleoresinous coated brown Kraft paper. Brown Silite is a dark brown paper coated with a multicoat resinous coating. Color: Brown. Suggested product uses include maple syrup, auto polish, floor wax, industrial oil, insecticide, linseed oil, motor oil, paint, paint remover, shoe polish, stencil ink, varnish and turpentine.

An edge or side defect. Fine and shallow check which appears on the side or edge of the ware.

A general defect. Fine vertical laps in the side or neck of a container.

Cosmetic, manicure, dental, jewelry cleaning, medical applicator, nail polish plug, bath scrub, wood handle, acid, and twisted wire brushes.

A type of cushioning material that is made by trapping air between two layers of plastic material and using the bubbles to protect products inside their shipping containers. See blister packaging.

A finish defect. A finish which is blown out of shape.

A plug used to close a barrel or drum bung hole. Called a plug when referring to a steel drum closure.

A dark streak of material in a plastic bottle resulting from decomposed material dislodged from the extruder and incorporated in the bottle.

Butter chipboard is a pigmented chipboard which is smooth on both sides. It is used as a backing material to which facings are laminated in the manufacture of duplex liners. Butterchipboard can be laminated to aluminum foil, heat seal constructions and coated with a release coating. Thickness and color is available as specified.

A design of thread profile (cross section) which takes the form of a right triangle or slight modification of that form. It is usually positioned so that the right angle is at the bottom of the thread cross section and adjacent to the neck of the bottle finish. The horizontal leg of the right triangle is the bearing surface for a matching cap thread. The thread sides terminate abruptly in threading, gradually tapering down to the neck finish. The buttress thread is designed to withstand maximum force in one direction only.

The ledge inside the mouth of a bottle, such as a milk bottle, to receive a plug closure.

(1) The amount of space provided inside a container for a given amount of product. (2) The total amount of volume inside the container. The latter is more correctly called the overflow capacity.

A term used for metal or molded closures.

A bottle or similar container made of glass, plastic, metal or clay, having a capacity of 3 to 13 gallons. Where the carboy is used for shipping purposes, it is usually designed to be encased in a rigid protective outer container for shipment, often with the use of cushioning materials prescribd by DOT specifications, particularly when the carboy contains dangerous liquids. Carboys are also used for local shipment of springwater, distilled water and drinking water where no protective container is used or only a simple outer container from which the carboy is removed for dispensing purposes.

A light-gauge (24-gauge or lighter) metal drum for packaging heavy viscous, semi-solid, or solid materials, such as asphalt, tar, wax, etc.

In blow molding, the parts of the mold that combine to provide the container body shape.

Cubic centimeter. A unit for measuring volume, where 1 cc = 0.0338 ounce.

Clay Coated Pulp (CCP). A backing material to which facings are laminated in the manufacture of duplex liners. CCP is pulpboard with a white clay coating on one side. The clay coating is used to prevent discoloration and the absorption of wax. Thickness is per specification.

Solid extrusion blend of polyethylene and polyisobutylene.

A quick but not precise method for examining the adherence of printing on plastic films. A piece of cellophane adhesive tape, or other pressure-sensitive tape, is adhered to a section of printing and then pulled off in one motion to see whether or not the ink will come off with it. The speed of the pulling is important.

A band made of hydrated cellulose film that is extruded in continuous tubing form. The cellulose tubing is then processed and printed in this form and cut into individual bands of predetermined lengths. When the Celon is applied to the finish of the container, it is allowed to air dry. During this air-drying period, it shrinks to form a skin-type film over the neck finish of the container.

A process of labeling glass containers with a label composed of colored glass that is fused to the container.

Certificate of Compliance. A document signed by an authorized party affirming that the supplier of a product or service has met the requirements of the relevant specifications, contract or regulation.

A piece of corrugation with a height of 9/64 inch excluding the facing, generally spaced about 39 to 45 flutes per foot.

A bottom defect. A small check that occurs on the rounded portion of the bottom near the contact surface.

A finish defect. A finish which has a light, bright check in the threads or in the middle of the finish.

A finish defect. Horizontal checks which occur on or near the parting line between the neck and the finish.

The resistance of glass to attack by solvents or product.

Ability of a material to retain utility and appearance following contact with chemical agents. Chemical resistance properties include stain resistance, swelling resistance, moisture resistance, corrosion resistance, etc.

Also CRC. A closure that requires dissimilar motions which make removal by a child difficult and is compliant with the Code of Federal Regulations Title 16, Part 1700.

Part of the tooling used to form hollow objects or containers by the blow molding process. It is a tubular tool through which air pressure is introduced into the parison to create the air pressure necessary to form the parison into the shape of the mold.

A finish defect. A finish from which a small section is broken on the top or side.

A narrowed or constricted opening in the neck of a container.

Freedom of haze or cloudiness in a glass or plastic material.

Any of various styles of plastic and metal closure plugs and fitments intended to reduce the size of a bottle neck finish for a more controlled dispensing of product. Plugs and fitments are available for a wide variety of end uses.

A devise used to seal off the opening of the bottle to prevent the loss of its contents. Including plastic, glass, rubber, metal, dispensing (hinged top, snip top, disc top, thread, snap-on, push/pull), conventional (ribbed, fluted, smooth), specialty (bleach, brush well, jigger, button seal, aerosol, perforated), linerless, lined, applicator, decorative, child resistant, tamper evident, heat seal, crimp-on, and counter cap closures.

Closures with a specific thread configuration standard called Europa.

Anodized and solid aluminum decorative closures.

Styles include straight brush, bent brush, dauber, wick, glass rod, nail polish and cosmetic applicator closures.

Extruding two or more layers of thermoplastic materials to form a combined film sheet or molded unit. Limited to plastics.

The textile ball inserted into pharmaceutical bottles after filling with a solid product. Most commonly seen in aspirin, vitamin and other pill bottles. Cotton, polyester and rayon coil are available in various weights.

Contraction of the walls of a container (e.g., upon cooling) leading to permanent deformation of the container.

Mold action in the manufacture of closures. This technology utilizes a three part core. After the cavity is removed following the injection cycle, the center portion of the core (core wedge) retracts while the two outer core halves move radially inward. Once the closure thread is cleared, the stripper sleeve moves forward to eject the closure.

Cylindrical container of thin, flexible metal with integral shoulder and neck, with a screw cap closure made of plastic. Collapsible tubes can also be made of paper, films, plastics, etc. They may have wax, resin or lacquer linings. Collapsible tubes are usually filled through the bottom and subsequently closed by multiple folding of the bottom, or crimped with a metal clip or sometimes welded tight.

A measured amount of dye or pigment incorporated into a predetermined amount of plastic. This pigmented or colored plastic is then mixed into larger quantities of plastic material used for molding. The concentrate is added to the bulk of plastic in measured quantity in order to produce a precise, predetermined color of the molded bottles.

A test performed on a small sample of corrugated which is a measure of the compression strength of that sample. Also referred to as edge crush and short column crush.

Ability of a container, whether lined or unlined, to resist degradation of or by the product contained.

A rigid container with the body made of fibreboard or fibreboard in combination with other materials such as metal foils or plastics. One or both ends may be made of metal, plastic or other materials.

A backing material to which facings are laminated in the manufacture of duplex liners. It consists of cork particles (flakes and granules) bonded together with a thermosetting synthetic resin.

Plastic that undergoes degradation by biological processes during composting to yield CO2, water, inorganic compounds, and biomass at a rate consistent with other known compostable materials and leave no visible, distinguishable or toxic residue.

The resin, along with modifiers, pigments, antioxidants, lubricants, etc., which are to be molded or blown into final form.

A method of forming objects from plastics by placing the material in a confining mold cavity, then applying pressure, and usually heat.

Steel, plastic, composite and fiber drums, rigid and flexible industrial bulk containers, corrugated, paper, foam and plastic boxes, overpacks, insulated containers, dry ice storage chests, tubs, metal and fiber cans, plastic reshipper containers, steel and plastic pails and carboys.

An uninterrupted protruding helix on the neck of a container used to hold a screw-type closure. Continuous thread finishes have GPI finish designations in the 400 series.

A can with the body made of fibreboard formed by convolute winding of paper to build up the required thickness.

Defect in glass containers. A narrow, stringy band of glass of a composition different from the rest of the glass surrounding it.

A closure made of cork, or, by extension, any plug-type closure.

A finish which is closed by means of a cork.

A finish defect. A bright, light check which is not unusually deep and is located on the inside of the top of the finish.

A packaging material consisting of a central member (medium) which has been fluted on a corrugator and to which one or two flat sheets of paperboard have been glued to form single-faced corrugated board or double-faced (single wall) corrugated fibreboard. The combination of two mediums and three facings is called double wall and the combination of three mediums and four facings is called triple wall. Corrugated board is generally made in four flute sizes, designated A, B, C and E.

A SANCAP Liner Technology product. An aluminum foil / polyethylene / polyester liner bonded to pulpboard. The Cosmetic Liner is composed of aluminum foil laminated to polyester with white P/E and bonded to a specified solid pulpboard. Color: White. Suggested product uses include vegetable oils, lard, floor cleaner, greases and various chemicals, such as acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, 18% hydrochloric acid and xylene.

Named for its shape, it is a thin flexible protrusion molded into a closure which will compress against a bottle sealing surface during normal capping operations. It prevents leakage and will seal a variety of bottles. The bottle land (the bottles sealing surface) must be flat and free of defects because this sealing method requires compression to be effective.

Small, thin or bare spots in an applied coating that have the appearance of pockmarks.

Fine cracks which may extend in a network on or under the surface or through a layer of glass or plastic material.

There are several types that have been developed for products that constitute a hazard to small children. Basic principles of CRCs are (1) press-turn, (2) squeeze-turn and (3) combination lock and hidden key.

(1) Applying a seal of aluminum or coated aluminum foil by crimping with a die, generally corrugated. (2) A method of heat-sealing thermoplastic coated papers or thermoplastic films with the pressure exerted by knurled wheels or bars having a corrugated surface. (3) A small flat metal piece that is crimped mechanically to parts of flat strap to maintain tension and connect them permanently.

A finish defect. A finish which has a multitude of fine surface fractures across the top.

A finish defect. A finish which has a bent or crooked appearance. Also called bent finish.

This is a crimped closure. Flutes are pressed into the flaring skirt of a shallow metal disk, which holds an inner disk of resilient lining material that forms the actual seal.

The neck finish on beer and beverage bottles sealed with a crown cap.

C.T. Finish (Continuous Thread Finish)

An uninterrupted protruding helix on the neck of a container to accommodate a screw type closure. Designed primarily to seal container finishes with the GPI finish number designations in the 400 series.

Glass, from containers not approved by selectors, that has been crushed or broken and is added to the batch to be remelted and formed into new containers; or recycled broken glass that is used in the manufacture of new glass.

Department of Transportation. United States governmental body that regulates the shipment of materials on public right of ways.

Overpack carton for glass or D.O.T. 2E plastics.

Overpack carton for D.O.T. plastics.

Steel drum from 5 gallon to 55 gallon in size, O/H, single trip.

Steel drum from 5 gallon to 55 gallon in size, T/H, single trip.

Steel drum from 5 gallon to 55 gallon in size, O/H, single trip.

Overpack carton for D.O.T. plastics.

P/E molded container not exceeding 5 quarts, T/H. Requires overpack.

P/E molded container 5 gallon to 55 gallon in size, T/H, requires overpack.

P/E molded container 13.5 gallon to 55 gallon in size, T/H, requires overpack.

P/E molded container 5 gallon to 14 gallon in size, T/H, requires overpack.

P/E molded container 1 gallon to 55 gallon in size, T/H, requires overpack.

P/E molded container 2-1/2 gallon to 30 gallon in size, T/H, reusable.

P/E molded container NE 7 gallon in size, O/H, non-reusable.

Steel drum 2 gallon to 55 gallon in size, O/H, single trip.

Steel drum 5 gallon to 55 gallon in size, T/H, single trip.

Steel drum 5 gallon in size, O/H, non-reusable.

Steel drum 5 gallon in size, T/H, non-reusable