Clockwise, from top left:BorobudurMangkunegaran Palace, Village in theDieng PlateauSerayu RiverKarimunjava, Fishermen onRawa Pening, Rice paddy withMount MerapiandMount Merbabuin the background
Location of Central Java in Indonesia
Central Java(Javanese:ꦗꦮꦠꦼꦔꦃ;Indonesian:Jawa Tengah, abbreviated as Jateng) is aprovinceofIndonesia. This province is located in the middle of the island ofJava. Its administrative capital isSemarang.
The province is 32,800.69km2in area, approximately a quarter of the total land area of Java. Its population was 33,753,023 at the 2015 Census; it is the third most populated province in both Java and Indonesia afterWest JavaandEast Java.
Central Java is also a cultural concept that includes theSpecial Regionand city ofYogyakartaas well as the Province of Central Java. However, administratively the city and its surroundingregencieshave formed a separatespecial region(equivalent to a province) sinceIndonesian independence, administrated separately.
Located in the middle of the island ofJava, the Central Java province is bordered byWest JavaandEast Javaprovinces. A small portion of its south region is theYogyakarta Special Regionprovince, fully enclosed on the landward side by the Central Java province. To the north and the south, the Central Java province faces theJava Seaand theIndian Ocean. Central Java includes offshore islands such asKarimun Jawa Islandsin the north, andNusakambanganin the southwest. Yogyakarta is historically and culturally part of the Central Java region, although it is now a separate administrative entity.
The average temperature in Central Java is between 1828 degrees Celsius and the relative humidity varies between 7394 percent.1While a high level of humidity exists in most low-lying parts of the province, it drops significantly in the upper mountains.1The highest average annual rainfall of 3,990mm with 195 rainy days was recorded inSalatiga.1
The geography of Central Java is regularclarification neededwith small strips of lowlands near the northern and southern coast with mountain ranges in the centre of the region.citation neededTo the west lies an active stratovolcanoMount Slamet, and further east is theDieng Volcanic ComplexonDieng Plateau. Southeast of Dieng lies theKedu Plain, which is bordered to the east side by the twin volcanoes ofMount MerapiandMount Merbabu. South of Semarang, liesMount Ungaran, and to the north-east of the city liesMount Muriaon the most northern tip of Java. To the east near the border withEast JavaliesMount Lawu, where its eastern slopes are in the East Java province.
Due to its active volcanic history,volcanic ashmakes Central Java highly fertile agriculture land.Paddy fieldsare extensive, except in the southeasternGunung Kidulregion partly due to the high concentration oflimestoneand its location in a rain shadow from the prevailing weather.citation needed
The largest rivers are theSerayuin the west, which empties into the Indian Ocean, and theSolowhich flows into East Java.
On the eve of theWorld War IIin 1942, Central Java was subdivided into 7 residencies (Dutchresidentieor pluralresidenties,Javanesekarsiḍnanorkarsidhnan) which corresponded more or less with the main regions of this area. These residencies wereBanjoemas,Kedoe,Pekalongan,Semarang, andDjapara-Rembangplus the so-calledGouvernement SoerakartaandGouvernement Jogjakarta. However, after the local elections in 1957 the role of these residencies were reduced until they finally disappeared.2
Nowadays Central Java (excluding Yogyakarta Special Region) is divided into 29 regencies (kabupaten) and 6 cities (kota, previouslykotamadyaandkota pradja), the latter being independent of any regency. The Southern (Kedu) area used to be theSurakarta Sunanate, until the monarchy was un-recognized by Indonesian government. These contemporary regencies and cities can further be subdivided into 565districts(kecamatan). These districts are further subdivided into 7,804 rural communes or villages (desa) and 764 urban communes (kelurahan).1
Java has been inhabited by humans or their ancestors (hominina) since prehistoric times. In Central Java and the adjacent territories in East Java remains known asJava Manwere discovered in the 1890s by the Dutch anatomist and geologistEugne Dubois. Java Man belongs to the speciesHomo erectus.3They are believed to be about 1.7 million years old.4
Then about 40,000 years ago,Australoidpeoples related to modern Australian Aboriginals andMelanesianscolonised Central Java. They were assimilated or replaced by MongoloidAustronesiansby about 3000 BC, who brought with them technologies of pottery, outrigger canoes, the bow and arrow, and introduced domesticated pigs, fowls, and dogs. They also introduced cultivated rice and millet.5
Recorded history began in Central Java in the 7th century AD. The writing, as well as Hinduism and Buddhism, were brought to Central Java by Indians from South Asia. Central Java was a centre of power in Java back then.
In 664 AD, the Chinese monk Hui-neng visited the Javanese port city he calledHlng() orHo-ling, where he translated various Buddhist scriptures into Chinese with the assistance of the Javanese Buddhist monk Jñnabhadra.6It is not precisely known what is meant by the nameHlng. It used to be considered the Chinese transcription ofKalingabut it now most commonly thought of as a rendering of the nameAreng.Hlngis believed to be located somewhere between Semarang andJepara.7
The first dated inscription in Central Java is the Inscription ofCanggalwhich is from 732 AD (or 654 Saka). This inscription which hailed fromKedu, is written inSanskritin Pallava script.8In this inscription it is written that aShaiviteking namedSri Sanjayaestablished a kingdom calledMataram. Under the reign of Sanjayas dynasty several monuments such as thePrambanantemple complex were built.
In the meantime a competing dynasty arose, which adhered toBuddhism. This was theSailendradynasty, also from Kedu, which built theBorobudurtemple.
After 820 there is no more mention ofHlngin Chinese records. This fact coincides with the overthrow of the Sailendras by the Sanjayas who restored Shaivism as the dominant religion. Then in the middle of the 10th century, for unknown reason, the centre of power moved to Eastern Java.7
A few centuries later, after the destruction of the great HinduMajapahit Empirein the 15th 16th centuries by the Central Javanese Muslim kingdom of Demak, the Javanese centre of power moved back to Central Java. In the meanwhile European traders began to frequent Central Javanese ports. The Dutch established a presence in the region through theirEast India Company.
After Demak itself collapsed, a new kingdom on the Kedu Plain emerged.This new kingdom, which was also asultanate, bore the old name of Mataram. Under the reign ofSultan Agung, Mataram was able to conquer almost all of Java and beyond by the 17th century, but internal disputes and Dutch intrigues forced Mataram to cede more and more land to the Dutch. These cessions finally led to several partitions of Mataram. The first partition was after the 1755Treaty of Giyanti. This treaty divided the old kingdom in two, the Sultanate ofSurakartaand the Sultanate ofYogyakarta. Then few years later Surakarta was divided again with the establishment of theMangkunegaranafter theTreaty of Salatiga(March 17, 1757).
During the Napoleonic Wars in Europe, Central Java, as part of the Netherlands East-Indies, a Dutch colony, was handed over to the British. In 1813, the Sultanate of Yogyakarta was also divided with the establishment of thePakualamanan.
After the British left, the Dutch came back, as decided by theCongress of Vienna. Between 1825 1830 theJava Warravaged Central Java. The result of the war was a consolidation of the Dutch power. The power and the territories of the divided kingdom of Mataram were greatly reduced.
NetherlandsenforcedCultivation systemwhich was linked to famines and epidemics in the 1840s, firstly inCirebonand then Central Java, as cash crops such as indigo and sugar had to be grown instead of rice
However Dutch rule brought modernization to Central Java. In the 1900s the modern province of Central Java, the predecessor of the current one was created. It consisted of five regions orgewestenin Dutch. Surakarta and Yogyakarta were autonomous regions calledVorstenlanden(literally princely states). Then after the Indonesian independence the province of Central Java was formalized on August 15, 1950, excluding Yogyakarta but including Surakarta.1Since then there have been no (major) changes in the administrative division of Central Java.
After the30 September Movements abortive coup of 1965,an anti-communist purgetook place in Central Java, in which Communists and leftists (both actual and alleged) were killed by the army and community vigilante groups. Others were interned inconcentration camps, the most infamous of which was on the isle ofBuruin the Moluccas (first used as a place of political exile by the Dutch). Some were executed years later but most were released in 19799
In 1998, preluding the downfall of president Suharto, anti Chinese violence broke out in Surakarta (Solo) and surrounding areas. Much Chinese property and other buildings were burnt down. In 1999, public buildings in Surakarta were burnt again by supporters ofMegawati Soekarnoputriafterinstead of Soekarnoputri to bePresident of Indonesia. They carried out sweeping actions against Western foreigners who reside in this city after theSeptember 11, 2001 attacks.10
The2006 Yogyakarta earthquakein the south and Yogyakarta devastated many buildings and caused thousands of deaths and more than 37,000 injuries. Today, some areas are still under reconstruction.
As of the 2010 census, Central Javas population stood at some 32,380,687. As of the 1990 census, the population was 28,516,786.11So the population has increased approximately 13.5% in 20 years.
Islam 95.7%, Protestant 1.7%, Catholic 3.2%, Hindu 0.08%, Buddhist 0.64%, dan Kejawen 0.33%
The three biggest regencies in terms of population are:BrebesBanyumasandCilacap. Together these regencies make up approximately 16% of the Central Javanese population. Major urban population centres are GreaterSemarang, GreaterSurakartaand theBrebesTegalSlawiarea in the north-west of the province.
Although the overwhelming majority of Javanese are Muslims, many of them also professindigenous Javanese beliefsClifford Geertz, in his book about the religion of Java made a distinction between the so-calledsantriJavanese andabanganJavanese.13He consideredsantriJavanese as orthodox Muslims whileabanganJavanese are nominal Muslims that devote more energy to indigenous traditions.
Dutch Protestants were active in missionary activities and were rather successful. The Dutch CatholicJesuitmissionary man,F.G.C. van Lithalso achieved some success, especially in areas around the central-southern parts of Central Java and Yogyakarta in the beginning of the 20th century,14and he is buried at the Jesuit necropolis atMuntilan.
After theOverthrow of Sukarnoin 1965, religious identification of citizens became compulsory. Therefore, there has been a renaissance of Buddhism and Hinduism since then. As one has to choose a religion out of the five official religions in Indonesia; i.e. Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, and Buddhism, the latter two became alternatives for people who didnt want to be Muslims or Christians.
Confucianismis also common amongst Chinese Indonesians. Since 2006 it is a recognised official religion.
The vast majority of the population in Central Java areethnic Javanese, they constitute approximately 98% of the whole population.15In addition to the Javanese, small pockets of Sundanese communities are to be found near the border with West Java, especially inBrebesandCilacapregencies. Sundanese toponyms are common in these regions such asDayeuhluhurin Cilacap,CiputihandCitimbangin Brebes and evenCilongokas far away in Banyumas.16
In urban centers, other minorities such asChinese Indonesiansand Arabs are common. The Chinese are even to be found in rural areas. The urban areas that are densely populated byChinese Indonesian, are calledpecinan, which meansChina Town.
As the overwhelming majority of the population of Central Java are Javanese, the most dominant language isJavanese. There are several dialects which are spoken in Central Java, the two main dialects are western Javanese (also calledBasa Ngapakwhich includes the Banyumasan dialect and the dialect of Brebes-Tegal-Pekalongan17) and central Javanese.
Sundaneseis also spoken in some pockets near the border with West Java, especially inBrebesandCilacapregencies. However, according to some sources, Sundanese used to be spoken as far away as inDieng Plateau.18This former boundary of Sundanese coincides more or less with theisoglossdividing Central Javanese with Western Javanese.Madureseis also widely spoken onMaduraand in the northern coat region ofEastern Java
In urban centersIndonesianis widely spoken.
Central Java is considered to be the heart of the Javanese culture. Home of the Javanese courts, Central Javanese culture formed what non-Javanese see as the Javanese Culture along with it stereotypes. The ideal conducts and morals of the courts (such as politeness, nobility and grace) influence the people tremendously. The people of Central Java are known as soft-spoken, very polite, extremely class-conscious, apathetic, down-to-earth, et cetera. These stereotypes formed what most non-Javanese see as Javanese Culture, when in fact not all of theJavanese peoplebehave that way. Moreover, most Javanese are far from the court culture.19
The Javanese cultural area can be divided into three distinct main regions: Western Javanese, Central Javanese and Eastern Javanese culture or in their Javanese names asNgapak,KejawnandArk.
The boundaries of these cultural regions coincide with theisoglossesof the Javanese dialects. Cultural areas west ofDieng PlateauandPekalongan Regencyare consideredNgapakwhereas the boundary of the eastern cultural areas orArklies inEast Java. Consequently, culturally, Central Java consists of two cultures, while the Central Javanese Culture proper is not entirely confined to Central Java.19
The architecture of Central Java is characterised by the juxtaposition of the old and the new and a wide variety of architectural styles, the legacy of many successive influences by the Indians, the Persians and the Arabs, the Chinese, and the Europeans. In particular, northern coastal cities such as Semarang, Tegal and Pekalongan can boast fine colonial European architecture. The European and Chinese influence can be seen in Semarangs temple ofSam Poo Kongdedicated toZheng Heand the Domed Church built in 1753. The latter is the second oldest church in Java and the oldest in Central Java. Inland Surakarta, as a former capital, also has some fine European architecture.
Famous for its religious heritage, Central Java has some notable religious buildings. TheBorobudurand thePrambanantemple complexes are among the largest Buddhist and Hindu structures in the world. In general, a characteristic Javanese mosque doesnt have a dome as its roof but aMeru-like roof instead, which is reminiscent of a Hindu or Buddhist temple. The tower of the famousMosque of Kudusresembles a Hindu-Javanese or Balinese temple more than a traditional Middle-Eastern mosque.
Central Java is famous and well known for its exquisitebatik, a generictechnique used ontextiles. There are different styles of batik motifs. A centre of batik production isPekalongan. Other centres areSurakartaandYogyakarta.Batikin Pekalongan style which representgaya pesisir(or coastal style) is different from the one in Surakarta and Yogyakarta, which representbatikfrom the heartland of Java (gaya kejawn).20
You can even see the court influences in the art forms. The dances of the courts of Java are usually slow and graceful, with no excessive gestures. The people followed this approach, and as a result, slow-paced and graceful movements can even be found in folk dances throughout Central Java (with some exceptions). You can enjoy the beauty of Central Javanese dances in Kamajaya-Kamaratih or Karonsih, usually performed in a traditional Javanese wedding.
There are several kinds of Central Javanese theater and performing arts. The most well known is of course the Javanesewayangtheater. There are several kinds of Central Javanesewayang, amongst others:wayang kulit,wayang klitik,wayang bbr,wayang golk, andwayang wong.Wayang kulitare shadow puppets theater with leather puppets. The stories are loosely based onMahabharataandRamayanacycles.Wayang klitikare puppets theater with flat wooden puppets. The stories are based onPanji (king)stories. Panji was a native Javanese princes who set of in a journeys of desire.21Wayang bbris scroll theater, and it involves performing scenes of a story elaborately drawn and painted on rolled sheets.Wayang golkconsists of three-dimensional wooden puppets. The narrative can be based on anything, but usually the stories are drawn from Islamic heroic narratives. Finallywayang wongiswayangtheater involving live figures; actors who are performing a play. The narrative however must be based on Mahabharata or Ramayana.
In addition towayang, there is another form of theater which is calledketoprak.Ketoprakis a staged play by actors accompanied with Javanesegamelan. The narrative is free but cannot be based on Mahabharata or Ramayana. Otherwise it will be some kind ofwayang wong.
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Central Javanese music is almost synonymous withgamelan. This is a musical ensemble typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings, and vocalists may also be included. The term refers more to the set of instruments than the players of those instruments. A gamelan as a set of instruments is a distinct entity, built and tuned to stay together instruments from different gamelan are not interchangeable. However, gamelan is not typically Central Javanese as it is also known somewhere else.
Contemporary Javanese pop music is calledcampursari. It is a fusion between gamelan and Western instruments, much likekroncong. Usually the lyrics are in Javanese, but not always. One notable singer isDidi Kempot, born inSragen, north of Surakarta. Didi Kempot mostly sings in Javanese.
It can be argued that Javanese literature started in Central Java. The oldest known literary work in theJavanese languageis theInscription of SivagrhafromKedu Plain. This inscription which is from 856 AD, is written as akakawinor Javanese poetry with Indian metres.22Then the oldest of narrative poems,Kakawin Ramayana, which tells the well-known story ofRamayanais believed to have come from Central Java. It can be safely assumed that thiskakawinmust have been written in Central Java in the 9th century.23
After the shift of Javanese power to East Java, it had been quiet from Central Java for several centuries, concerning Javanese literature until the 16th century. At this time the centre of power was shifted back to Central Java. The oldest work written in Modern Javanese language concerning Islam is the so-called Book of Bonang or also The Admonitions of Seh Bari. This work is extant in just one manuscript, now kept in the University Library in Leiden, The Netherlands as codex Orientalis 1928. It is assumed that this manuscript originates from Tuban, in East Java and was taken to the Netherlands after 1598.24However this work is attributed toSunan Bonang, one of the nine Javanese saints who spread Islam in Java (Wali Songo) and Sunan Bonang came from Bonang, a place inDemak Regency, Central Java. So it can be argued that this work also mark the beginning of Islamic literature in Central Java.
However the pinnacle of Central Javanese literature was created at the courts of the kings of Mataram in Kartasura and later in Surakarta and Yogyakarta, mostly attributed to the Yasadipura family. The most famous member of this family isRangga Warsitawho lived in the 19th century. He is the best known of all Javanese writers and also one of the most prolific. He is also known asbujangga panutupor the last court poet.
After theIndonesian independence, the Javanese language as a medium was pushed to the background. Still one of the greatest contemporary Indonesian author,Pramoedya Ananta Toerwas born in 1925 inBlora, Central Java. He was an Indonesian author of novels, short stories, essays, polemics, and histories of his homeland and its people. A well-regarded writer in the West, Pramoedyas outspoken and often politically charged writings faced censorship in his native land during the pre-reformation era. For opposing the policies of both founding presidentSoekarno, as well as those of its successor, the New Order regime ofSoeharto, he faced extrajudicial punishment. During the many years in which he suffered imprisonment and house arrest, he became acause clbrefor advocates of freedom of expression and human rights. In his works he writes much about life and social problems in Java.
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Rice is the staple food of Central Java. In addition to rice, dried cassava known locally asgaplkalso serve as staple food. Javanese food tends to taste sweet. Cooked and stewed vegetables, usually in coconut milk (santenin Javanese) are popular. Raw vegetable which is popular in West Java is less popular in Central Java.
Saltwater fish, both fresh and dried is common, especially among coastal populations. Freshwater fish is not popular in Central Java, unlike in West Java, except perhaps forcatfishknown locally asll. Catfish is usually fried and served with chilli condiment (sambal) and raw vegetables.
Chicken, mutton and beef are common meat.Dog meat, known by itseuphemismdaging jamu(literally traditional medicine meat) is also occasionally eaten by certain parts of the population.
Tofuandtempeserve as common fish and meat replacement. Famous Central Javanese dishes includegudeg(sweet stew of jackfruit) andsayur lodeh(vegetables cooked in coconut milk).
Besides the aforementioned tofu, there is strong Chinese influence in many dishes. Some examples of Sino-Javanese food arenoodles,bakso(meatballs),lumpia,soto(some kind of soup made with chicken or beef) et cetera. The widespread use of sweet soybeans sauce (kecap manis) in the Javanese cuisine can also be attributed to Chinese influence.
Central Java is connected to the interprovincial national way on the northern coast (Jalur Pantai UtaraorJalur Pantura) which runs from Anyer inBantentoBanyuwangiEast Javaon the opposite ofBali. Losari, the Central Javanese gate at the western border on the northern coast, could be reached fromJakartain 4 hours drive. On the southern coast, there is also a national way which run from Kroya at the Sundanese-Javanese border, throughYogyakartatoSurakartaand then to Surabaya via Kertosono in East Java. There is furthermore a direct connection fromTegaltoPurwokertoand fromSemarangtoYogyakartaandSurakarta. In addition to that there is a toll road in Semarang and from Semarang to Ungaran which runs for 14 kilometer. Trans-Java Toll Road also would serves Central Java with highway. Some parts has been opened and the others are under construction.
Central Java was the province that first introduced a railway line in Indonesia. The very first line began in 1873 between Semarang and Yogyakarta by a private company,25but this route is now no longer used. Today there are five lines in Central Java: the northern line which runs fromJakartaviaSemarangtoSurabaya. Then there is the southern line from Kroya through Yogyakarta and Surakarta to Surabaya. There is also a train service between Semarang and Surakarta and a service between Kroya and Cirebon. At last there is a route between Surakarta and Wonogiri. All of these lines are single track lines, except the line betweenYogyakartaand Surakarta which is double track.
On the northern coast Central Java is served by 8 harbours. The main port is Tanjung Mas in Semarang, other harbours are located in Brebes, Tegal, Pekalongan, Batang, Jepara, Juwana and Rembang. The southern coast is mainly served by the port Tanjung Intan inCilacap.26
Finally on mainland Central Java there are three commercial airports. There is one additional commercial airport on the Karimunjawa isles. The airports on the mainland are:Adisumarmo International Airportin Surakarta,Achmad Yani Airportin Semarang andTunggul Wulung AirportinCilacap. Karimunjawa is served byDewadaru Airport.
GDPin the province of Central Java was estimated to be around $US 98 billion in 2010, with a per capita income of around $US 3,300. Economic growth in the province is quite rapid and GDP is forecast to reach $US 180 billion by 2015. The poverty rate of its people is 13 percent and will be decreased below 6 percent.27
Much of Central Java is a fertile agricultural region. The primary food crop is wet rice. An elaborate irrigation network of canals, dams, aqueducts, and reservoirs has greatly contributed to Central Javas the rice-growing capacity over the centuries. In 2001, productivity of rice was 5,022 kilograms/ha, mostly provided from irrigated paddy field ( 98%).Klaten Regencyhad the highest productivity with 5525 kilograms/ha.28
Other crops, also mostly grown in lowland areas on small peasant landholdings, are corn (maize), cassava, peanuts (groundnuts), soybeans, and sweet potatoes. Terraced hillslopes and irrigatedpaddy fieldsare familiar features of the landscape. Kapok, sesame, vegetables, bananas, mangoes, durian fruits, citrus fruits, and vegetable oils are produced for local consumption. Tea, coffee, tobacco, rubber, sugarcane and kapok; and coconuts are exported. Several of these cash crops at a time are usually grown on large family estates. Livestock, especially water buffalo, is raised primarily for use as draft animals. Salted and dried fish are imported.2829
Central Java is home to such notable state universities, asDiponegoro UniversitySemarang State University, andWalisongo Islamic University(Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo) inSemarangSebelas Maret UniversityinSurakarta; andJenderal Soedirman UniversityinPurwokerto.
The Military Academy (Akademi Militer) is located in Magelang Regency while the Police Academy (Akademi Kepolisian) is located in Semarang. Furthermore, in Surakarta theSurakarta Institute of Indonesian Arts(ISI Surakarta) is located. In addition to these, Central Java has hundreds of other private higher educations, including religious institutions.
For foreign students requiring language training Salatiga has been a location for generations of students attending courses.
There are several tourism sites Central Java.Semarangitself has many old buildings:Puri Maerokocoand theIndonesian Record Museumare located in this city.
Borobudur, which is one of theUNESCO World Cultural Heritagesites of Indonesia, is also located in this province, in theMagelang RegencyCandi MendutandCandi Pawoncan also be found near the Borobudur temple complex.
Candi Prambanan, on the border of Klaten regency and Yogyakarta is the biggest complex of Hindu temples. It is also a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site. There are several temples in the region around theDieng Plateau. These date from before the era of the ancientMataram.
The Palace of the Sunan (Keraton Kasunanan) and Pura Mangkunegaran, are located inSurakarta, while the Grojogan Sewu waterfall is located inKaranganyar Regency. Several Majapahit temples andSangiran museumare also located in Central Java.
The motto of Central Java isPrasetya Ulah Sakti Bhakti Praja. This is a Javanese phrase meaning A vow of devotion with all might to the country. The coat of arms of Central Java depicts a legendary flask,KundiAmertaorCupu Manik, formed in a pentagon representingPancasila. In the center of the emblem stands a sharp bamboo spike (representing the fight for independence, and it has 8 sections which represent Indonesias month of Independence) with a golden five-pointed star (representing faith in God), superimposed on the black profile of acandi(temple) with sevenstupas, while the middle stupa is the biggest. Thiscandiis reminiscent of theBorobudur. Under thecandiwavy outlines of waters are visible. Behind thecanditwo golden mountain tops are visible.
These twin mountains represents the unity between the people and their government. The emblem shows a green sky above thecandi. Above, the shield is adorned with a red and white ribbon, the colours of theIndonesian flag. Lining the left and right sides of the shield are respectively stalk of rice (17 of them, representing Indonesias day of Independence